Articles On The Topic: "exo"
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Articles on the topic: "exo"
The cloud particles in our model atmospheres are spherical and distributed in size according to a two-parameter gamma size distribution (see Hansen & Travis 1974) that is described by an effective radius reff and an effective variance υeff. The terrestrial clouds are located between 1 and 3 km in altitude, and the Venu-sian clouds, depending on their evolutionary phase, between 47 and 80 km. The cloud optical thickness has a uniform vertical distribution through the altitude range (see Fig. 1).
We started our evolutionary model of Venus assuming Earthlike conditions (Phase 1), that is an atmosphere consisting of 78% N2 and 22% O2. Model simulations showed that the actual dependence of the total and polarized flux signals on the percentage of oxygen appeared to be negligible. Hence we used the present-day Earth atmosphere as the Earth-like atmosphere model while the actual percentage of oxygen on an exoplanet could be different. The cloud particles have an effective radius reff of 10 µm in agreement with ISCCP (Tselioudis 2001), and an effective variance υeff of 0.1. The total cloud optical thickness bc is 10.0 at λ = 0.55 µm and the cloud layer extends from 2 to 4 km.
The next evolutionary phases are also inspired by the Venus climate model of Bullock & Grinspoon (2001). In Phase 2, the atmosphere is Venus-like as it consists of pure CO2 gas and has relatively thin liquid water clouds with bc = 4, and with the cloud tops at 80 km. For this phase, we use reff of 0.5 µm, which is smaller than the present day value, because the atmosphere is expected to be too hot for strong condensation to take place thus preventing the particles from growing larger. In Phase 3, the clouds are thick sulphuric-acid solution clouds, with bc = 120 and the cloud tops at 65 km, because the atmosphere is cool enough to allow condensation and coalescence of saturated vapor over a large altitude range. Since the region of condensation covers a large altitude range, the particles can grow large until they evaporate. In this phase, reff = 2 µm, which is twice the effective radius of the present day Venus cloud particles.
In this particular orbital geometry, Pp shows less pronounced angular features than for the same model planets in edge-on orbits (Fig. 8) because of the more limited phase-angle range. For example, the Current Earth (Phase 1) shows no rainbow despite the H2O clouds, because the phase angle of about 40 is not reached. In the visible (λ = 0.5 µm), Pp reaches the largest values for the Current Earth (Phase 1). At longer wavelengths, Pp of the Thin cloud Venus (Phase 2) strongly dominates because of the Rayleigh scattering by the small cloud particles. The Thick cloud Venus (Phase 3) shows predominant negative polarization at all wavelengths and across the whole orbital phase-angle range except at λ = 0.5 µm around an orbital phase angle of 20.
In Fig. 10, we show which evolutionary phase has the highest values of Pp across all phase angles α and wavelengths λ. We find that Pp of the Phase 1 planet (Current Earth) dominates between 30 and 150, and mostly for λ α = 40 and up to λ = 2.0 µm, the polarization signal of the rainbow produced by the large water cloud particles is about 0.1 (see the bottom plot of Fig. 10). For λ > 1.0 µm, the Phase 2 planet (Thin cloud Venus) shows the strongest polarization due to the Rayleigh scattering by the small H2O cloud particles, as can clearly be seen in the bottom plot. The small patches where the strongest polarization signal is from the Thick cloud Venus (Phase 3), for example near α = 20 and λ
In our simulations, we neglected absorption by atmospheric gases. Including such absorption would yield lower total fluxes in specific spectral regions, depending on the type and amount of absorbing gas, its vertical distribution, and on the altitude and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes. Including absorption by atmospheric gases could increase or decrease the degree of polarization, depending on the amount and vertical distribution of the absorbing gas and on the microphysical properties of the scattering particles at various altitudes (see e.g. Trees & Stam 2022; Stam 2008, for examples of polarization spectra of Earth-like planets). While measuring total and polarized fluxes of reflected starlight across gaseous absorption bands is of obvious interest for the characterization of planets and their atmospheres, the small numbers of photons inside gaseous absorption bands would make such observations extremely challenging.
The data were considered from peer-reviewed articles and histological material that was accessed in zoological collections in museums of Australia, Europe and the USA. Articles describing tissue stages of avian haemosporidians were included from 1908 to the present. Histological preparations of various organs infected with the exo-erythrocytic stages of different haemosporidian parasites were examined.
In all, 229 published articles were included in this review. Exo-erythrocytic stages of avian Plasmodium, Fallisia, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Akiba species were analysed, compared and illustrated. Morphological characters of tissue stages that can be used for diagnostic purposes were specified.
GV collected published articles and collection material, analysed the literature data and wrote the manuscript; GV and TAI analysed preparations of the exo-erythrocytic stages; TAI prepared plates of images. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Exosomes serve as vehicles carrying proteins, miRNAs, mRNAs, DNA, and circRNAs. These molecules play vital roles in cell-to-cell communication and are also recognized as possible biomarkers for their detective features. The exo-circRNAs are circRNAs delivered by exosomes and can be found in various kinds of body fluids. Many studies have already highlighted the possible application in diagnosis as well as novel therapy. Despite the promising prospects, many difficulties must be overcome. Although more articles have emerged recently, further studies are lacking compared to studies on mRNAs and miRNAs, which means before application to clinics, we should have a more accurate understanding of these molecules. In our view, the exo-circRNAs would be one of the most popular issues in the future, and there would be enough theoretical investigations supporting its clinical application.
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