Forensic Pathology Dolinak Pdf Download
Artificial intelligence uses trained algorithms to mimic human cognitive functions , especially in the context of interpreting complex data . In contrast to conventional methods, artificial intelligence algorithms are allowed to approach problems freely without strict programming . Deep learning is a subcategory under artificial intelligence, utilizing neural networks in a wide range of concepts such as image, text, and speech recognition [2, 4, 5]. While the applications of artificial intelligence and deep learning techniques are considered revolutionary within the healthcare sector and several medical specialties [2, 4, 6, 7], forensic applications have been relatively scarce [3, 8,9,10,11] and centered on subfields other than forensic pathology. This somewhat surprising, given the visual nature of forensic pathology at both microscopic and macroscopic levels.
Forensic Pathology Dolinak Pdf Download
Although artificial intelligence and deep learning techniques have clinical applications in several medical specialties [2, 4, 6, 7], forensic applications have been relatively scarce [3, 8,9,10,11] and centered on subfields other than forensic pathology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to address deep learning in gunshot wound interpretation. The present dataset comprised images from four discrete classes, namely contact shot, close-range shot, and distant shot wounds, as well as negative controls with no wounds. Each of the wound types was considered to have distinct visual features, thus providing a basis for the deep learning approach. Of the independent testing set, the fully trained multilayer perceptron based model was able to correctly classify all negative controls (100%), contact shots (100%), and close-range shots (100%) and misclassified one distant shot as a negative control (88.9%). Even though the division into four classes was relatively rough, the present results suggest that forensic pathologists may benefit from deep learning algorithms in gunshot wound interpretation.
Why go to the scene? The purpose of having the forensic medicine expert attend the death scene is severalfold. By viewing the body in the context of its surroundings, the forensic medicine expert is better able to interpret certain findings at the autopsy such as a patterned imprint across the neck from collapsing onto an open vegetable drawer in a refrigerator. The forensic medicine expert is also able to advise the investigative agency about the nature of the death, whether to confirm a homicide by a specific means, evaluate the circumstances to be consistent with an apparent natural death, or interpret the blood loss from a deceased person as being more likely due to natural disease than to injury. This preliminary information helps the investigative agency to define its perimeter, structure its approach, organize its manpower, secure potentially important evidence, and streamline its efforts. Nonattendance at death scenes has been regarded as one of the classical mistakes in forensic pathology. Hospital pathologists performing forensic autopsies who are not trained to, or able to, attend death scenes should be provided with information on how, when, and where the body was found, by whom, and under what circumstances. In some deaths, the immediate environment does not contribute to death, such as in cases of metastatic breast carcinoma. In other cases, the environment plays a role although it does not cause the death; for example, consider a case in which a person with marked coronary atherosclerosis collapses with a dysrhythmia while shoveling snow. On the other hand, the scene description and scene photographs are critical in documenting that the physical circumstances and body posture are indicative of death due to positional asphyxia because the autopsy in these cases may yield very few findings. The most meticulous autopsy in all academia will provide only a speculative cause and manner of death in a 30-year-old man with a negative history, negative toxicology, and autopsy findings of visceral congestion. Yet at the scene, a screwdriver is next to an uncovered electrical outlet on a rain-soaked patio at the decedent's house, which is undergoing renovation. The cause and manner of death are provided by the scene (Lew & Matshes, 2005).
The advancement of animal welfare is a worldwide trend, and this has brought with it the development of veterinary forensic sciences. Veterinary forensic pathology, an emerging discipline, plays a crucial role in animal death investigations. Each death tells its own story influenced by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and the presence of injuries varies from case to case. In forensic cases, the reference data should be applied with the awareness that individual exceptions may exist (Dolinak et al. 2005). Therefore, searching for sufficient supporting evidence and avoiding arbitrary opinions becomes the most challenging task in forensic pathology, especially in murder cases. In veterinary forensic pathology, variations among species and breeds often make the challenges more complicated. Limited research and case studies on selected types of injury further add to this situation. Furthermore, a lack of background information or evidence-based investigation often increases the difficulty of some cases, especially when the lesions might be subtle, such as those seen as a result of strangulation.
Death is defined as the cessation of physiological processes that maintain cell integrity and function. Almost after death, the body begins to undergo an irreversible, ineluctable and progressive sequence of physical and chemical changes1. Understanding the expected autopsy changes is critical to the correct interpretation of the gross and micropathology of autopsy. In addition, the postmortem interval (PMI) estimate, which is the time after death, depends on the understanding of these postmortem processes to a large extent. It is critical to accurately estimate the PMI in forensic and law enforcement because it contributes to the identification of victims and suspects, the ascertainment or elimination of suspect witnesses, the notification of death certificates, and the distribution of assets listed in wills2. However, the PMI inference method is difficult to be established because PMI is susceptible to many external and environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, oxygen tension, insects and scavenger activity3. 350c69d7ab